The present perfect simple expresses an action that is still going on or that stopped recently, but has an influence on the present. It puts emphasis on the result.
|I / you / we / they||I have spoken.||I have not spoken.||Have I spoken?|
|he / she / it||He has spoken.||He has not spoken.||Has he spoken?|
For irregular verbs, use the participle form (see list of irregular verbs, 3rd column). For regular verbs, just add “ed”.
|Exceptions in spelling when adding ed||Example|
|after a final e only add d||love – loved|
|final consonant after a short, stressed vowel
or l as final consonant after a vowel is doubled
|admit – admitted
travel – travelled
|final y after a consonant becomes i||hurry – hurried|
Example: She has written five letters.
Example: School has not started yet.
Example: She has cooked dinner.
Example: I have lost my key.
Example: I have never been to Australia.